Civil Engineering Dictionary Terms : L

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Sr.TermDefinition
1LaitanceA layer of weak and non-durable cement concrete caused by bleeding as a result of excessive vibration of concrete or over trowelling the mortar. It is weaker than the rest of the concrete and should be cut away and covered with a pure cement wash before laying more concrete on it.
2Landslip Or LandslideA sliding down of the soil on a slope because of an increase of loading (Due to rain, new building, etc.), or a removal of support at the foot due to cutting a railway or road or canal. Clays are particularly liable to slips.
3Lean Concrete Base (Lcb)A mixture of aggregate, cement and water used directly under concrete pavement. The mixture has a lower modulus of rapture than the concrete pavement, and a higher compressive strength than cement treated base.
4LedgeA horizontal projection or cut forming a shelf, cliff or rock wall.
5Lime Calcium oxide (CaO).
6Liquid LimitThe moisture content at the point between the liquid and the plastic states of a clay.
7Liqudated DamagesThe amount prescribed in the contract specifications, to be paid to the State (Client) or to be deducted from any payments due or to become due the Contractor, for each day's delay in completing the whole or any specified portion of the work beyond the time allowed in the contract specifications.
8Lloyd Davies FormulaA method for calculating the run-off, from which the sizes of sewers are calculated (Runoff water in cubic feet = 60.5 X area drained in acres X rainfall in inches per hour X impermeability factor).
9Loess Deposit of very porous and cavitated wind-blown silt and clay.
10Long ColumnA column which fails when overloaded, by buckling rather than by crushing. In reinforced-concrete work this is assumed to happen when columns which are longer than fifteen times their least dimension.
11Longitudinal JointA joint normally placed between traffic lanes in rigid pavements to control longitudinal cracking.
12Loss Of Prestress Losses of prestressing force after transfer arise mainly through elastic shortening, shrinkage and creep of the concrete and creep of the steel.
13LotAn isolated quantity of material from a single source.
14LuminaireComplete lighting device for the highway.

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